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What is insulin?
Insulin is the main hormone in the pancreas, a type of polypeptide that regulates the entry of glucose from the blood into cells. Insulin is secreted by the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (beta cells of the islets of Langerhans). Insulin is mainly used in diabetes mellitus.

Types of insulin:
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) divides insulin into different ways according to its type of work. For example - Rapid Acting insulin - Is often used before meals. This type of insulin starts working about 15 minutes after the injection. Its effects can last for three to four hours.

Short-Acting insulin - This insulin is injected before meals. It starts working 30 to 60 minutes after the injection and its effect lasts for five to eight hours.

Intermediate Acting insulin - This type of insulin starts working one to two hours after injection and its effects can last up to 14 to 16 hours.

Long-Acting insulin - This insulin cannot start working for about 2 hours after the injection. The effects can last for 24 hours or more.

How Insulin Works:

Insulin is a hormone that is made in your pancreas, a gland located in the back of your stomach. It uses glucose to provide energy to our body. Glucose is a type of sugar found in foods rich in carbohydrates.

After eating, our digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates and converts them into glucose.

Glucose is then absorbed into your bloodstream through the lining of your small intestine. Once glucose enters your bloodstream, insulin helps our body cells absorb that glucose and use it to break down energy.

Insulin also helps maintain the balance of glucose levels in human blood. When there is too much glucose in your bloodstream, insulin signals your liver to store extra glucose.

Stored glucose is not released until your blood glucose level is low. For example, when there is excessive pressure on our body during food or when we need to increase the extra energy, the level of glucose in the blood decreases. At that time insulin releases glucose stored in the blood in the liver.

The work of the hormone insulin:

The main function of the hormone insulin is to control the amount of glucose in the blood, especially when the amount of glucose in the blood increases and to reduce it to normal.

Insulin also does a lot more work

Insulin increases the absorption of glucose in the cells, i.e. helps the cells to absorb glucose.

Insulin stores glucose in the liver and muscle cells by converting it into glycogen. Glycogen synthesis from glucose is called glycogenesis.

Discovered insulin:
Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 - February 21, 1941) was a Canadian physician, physician, and co-inventor of insulin. He and his scientist Charles Best discovered this insulin in 1922.

What is insulin made of:
"Insulin" is a type of hormone (biochemical substance) produced by the pancreas. It is the main hormone in the pancreas that controls the entry of glucose from the blood into cells. Insulin is secreted by the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (beta cells of the islets of Langerhans).

Where does insulin come from?
The hormone insulin is secreted from the beta cells of the islets of the Langerhans gland in the pancreas.

The glands in the pancreas are located at the back of our stomach

Rules for giving insulin:

This is the best place to give insulin injections. The injection can be given to any part of the abdominal skin, leaving an area of ​​two inches on either side of the navel and one inch above and below. Insulin injections can also be given in the outer middle of both arms, in front of the thighs and in the middle of the outer thighs, and in both buttocks.

What are insulin reactions:

Hypoglycemia is a condition in which blood glucose levels drop dramatically as a result of taking insulin. If this happens as a result of taking insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. If you exercise too much or don't eat enough, your blood glucose level can drop too low, which can trigger insulin reactions. Some of the symptoms are -


Inability to speak
Loss of consciousness
Pale skin

What is insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance is a condition in which our muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond to the hormone insulin.

As a result, our blood glucose is not absorbed. As a result, blood glucose level increases a lot

To get out of this condition, the pancreas produces more insulin and balances the blood glucose level.

People with obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes are more likely to have insulin resistance.

Symptoms of Insulin Resistance:

There are usually some signs of insulin resistance

Blood pressure readings are 130/80 or higher

Glucose levels rise above 100 mg / dL

Triglyceride levels also rise above 150 mg / dL

Tests for Insulin Resistance:

The following tests are used to diagnose insulin resistance. There are several steps that can be taken to diagnose Insulin Resistance

First, your family history is known about this. Then your various physical tests like weight, blood pressure are all checked.

Then you have to do a blood test –

Fasting plasma glucose test - This test tests the blood glucose after you have not eaten for 6 hours.

Oral glucose tolerance test - Hereafter fasting plasma glucose test you are given sugar or sugary liquid, after 2 hours blood test is done again.

Hemoglobin A1c test - This test gives you a detailed idea about your average blood sugar level in the last 2-3 months.

Is insulin to be refrigerated?
Not necessarily, insulin can be kept at room temperature for four to six weeks effortlessly. The guidelines for storing insulin cartridges or vials at 4-6 degrees Celsius are primarily for stockists.

Is Insulin a Protein?
Yes, insulin is a protein made up of amino acid chains.

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