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Hyperglycemia: Symptoms and Treatment

Hyperglycemia is a clinical symptom that involves an increase or excess in blood serum sugar (glucose). As a norm in the blood of a patient with hyperglycemia 3.3-5.5 mm / l, the amount of sugar exceeds 6-7 mm / l.

With a significant increase in blood glucose (1 16.5 mm / liter or more), pre-natural conditions or even coma are more likely to occur.

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia?
In order to provide first aid to the patient and to prevent the progression of dangerous complications, it is important to immediately identify a sharp rise in blood glucose levels. To do this, you need to know the main symptoms of hyperglycemia:

Severe annoyance, though not motivated by anything,
Intense thirst
Numbness of the lips
Severe cold
The increased appetite (characteristic symptoms),
Excessive sweating
Severe headache
Attention deficit,
Symptoms of an illness include acetone odor from the patient's mouth,
Frequent urination,
Dry skin

The presence of glucose in the urine is often noticed with an increase in blood glucose levels (glucosuria). Generally, urine should not contain glucose, as it is completely excreted by the kidneys.

The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and increased urination. Other symptoms may include headache, fatigue, blurred vision, loss of appetite, and thinking and concentration problems.

A significant increase in blood glucose can lead to an emergency ("diabetic coma"). It can occur with both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes develop diabetic ketoacidosis, and patients with type 2 diabetes develop hyperglycemic hyperosmolar Bezketnovi syndrome (or hyperosmolar coma). These so-called hyperglycemic crises are serious situations that threaten the patient's life if treatment is not started immediately.

Over time, hyperglycemia can lead to the destruction of organs and tissues. Prolonged hyperglycemia weakens the immune response, leading to poorly healing cuts and wounds. The nervous system, blood vessels, kidneys, and vision can also be affected.

How is hyperglycemia treated?
Mild or transient hyperglycemia often does not require treatment, depending on its cause. People with moderate levels of blood glucose or prediabetes can reduce their sugar by changing their diet and lifestyle. Talk to your doctor about this to make sure you have chosen the right diet and lifestyle, or use sources you can trust, such as information from the Diabetic Association.

Insulin is a drug for people with type 1 diabetes and for the treatment of life-threatening conditions associated with a sharp rise in blood glucose. People with type 2 diabetes can use a combination of different oral and injectable drugs. Some patients with type 2 diabetes also use insulin.

Hyperglycemia caused by other causes may be normal during treatment of the underlying disease. In some cases, it may be advisable to stabilize glucose levels during insulin treatment.

What causes hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia can be caused by a variety of diseases, but diabetes is still the most common of them. Diabetes affects 6% of the population. With diabetes, insufficient production of insulin in the body or insulin cannot be used effectively increases glucose levels. Typically, the pancreas produces insulin after eating, so the cells can use glucose as fuel. This helps you to keep your blood sugar levels within normal limits.

Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5% of all diabetic cases and results in damage to the pancreatic cells responsible for insulin secretion.

This is due to the fact that type 2 diabetes is much more common and insulin cannot be used effectively. In addition to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, there is also gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops in pregnant women. According to statistics, 2 to 10% of pregnant women suffer from it.

Many times hyperglycemia is not the result of diabetes. Other conditions may also cause:

Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
Pancreatic cancer
Hyperthyroidism (increase in thyroid activity),
Cushing's syndrome (high levels of cortisol in the blood),
Abnormal hormone-secreting tumors, including glucagon, pheochromocytoma, growth hormone-secreting tumors,
Severe stress for the body for heart attacks, strokes, trauma, serious diseases can cause temporary hyperglycemia,
Some medications such as prednisone, estrogens, beta-blockers, glucagon, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines may cause elevated blood glucose.

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