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Malaria

Malaria: Symptoms, Because, Diagnosis, Complications, Resistance and Treatment

Malaria

Malaria is a contagious disease transmitted by mosquitoes to humans and other animals. It is a parasitic disease caused by various parasites such as Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax), Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), Plasmodium malaria (P. malaria), and Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale).


According to the information available so far, two types of parasites commonly cause malaria in the human body in India and these are 'Plasmodium vivax' and 'P. Falciparum '. When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a healthy person, the parasitic bacterium (Protista) enters the body's circulatory system through the saliva, then passes through the blood to the liver. The malaria germs nest in the liver, grow, and reproduce. Fever and headache are common


Symptoms

symptoms of malaria. If the condition is severe, malaria can lead to coma or even death. The disease is found in tropical and subtropical regions around the equator. The disease affects most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. After 10 to 14 days of being bitten by an infected mosquito, malaria develops in the human body, which is medically known as the 'incubation period'. If malaria is not diagnosed and treated at the right time, it can cause serious harm.


Symptoms of malaria appear within seven days of an infected mosquito bite. Common symptoms are:

Fever, headache, vomiting, and other viral symptoms (fever four to eight hours apart)

This parasite attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to symptoms of fatigue, convulsions, and loss of appetite due to anemia.

Parasites are transmitted by blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) and other vital organs.

During pregnancy, malaria greatly affects the mother, fetus, and baby. All of these women are weak in fighting and fighting malaria. As a result, the fetus is severely damaged.


Because

Malaria parasites belong to the genus Plasmodium. Malaria in humans p. Vivox, p. Falseperam, p. Malaria, and p. Occurs by oval species. In all these species p. Falciparum and p. Vivox is very common, including p. Falciparum is the most deadly.


Malaria and its Spread

The Plasmodium parasite is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito, commonly known as the "night-biting mosquito", as it usually bites humans between dusk and dawn. If a mosquito bites a person infected with malaria, the mosquito becomes infected and spreads the parasite to others. This parasite enters the bloodstream and reaches the liver. Infection occurs in the liver before it enters the bloodstream and invades the red blood cells, increasing the number of parasites in the red blood cells. Occasionally infected red blood cells rupture and many parasites spread into the blood. Infected red blood cells usually rupture every 48 to 72 hours. Each time it erupts, the victim develops a high fever, shivering, and sweating.


Pregnancy and Malaria

The World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women not go to areas where there is a risk of malaria. If infected mosquitoes bite pregnant women, their risk of complications increases.


Diagnosis

The various tests used to diagnose this disease are:

Microscopic examination

The most widely used and trusted test for the diagnosis of malaria is the microscopic blood test, where the parasites of the four major species can be easily diagnosed separately.


Immuno chromatographic examination

Immunochromatographic tests are known as 'rapid tests' to diagnose malaria. In this case, the disease is diagnosed with the help of 'dipsticks' and vein blood is used in this test. It takes a total of 15 to 20 minutes to complete the test. Test results are determined by the presence or absence of colored spots on the dipsticks, so it is very useful for field tests. In these rapid diagnostic tests, the maximum detection limit is 100 parasites per cubic liter of blood (commercial kits can range from 0.02 percent to 0.1 percent parasitemia). One drawback is that dipsticks tests are qualitatively accurate but not quantitative. This test can detect the presence of parasites in the blood, but cannot count the number.


Molecular methods

It is used in medical laboratories and in rapid 'real-time' testing [e.g., polymerase chain reaction (polymerase chain reaction or PCR)]. This method is used in epidemic-affected areas. PCR (and other molecular methods) is more accurate than microscopic testing.


Complications

Malaria is an important disease, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. The falciparum parasite is the most harmful and causes the most deaths.


Anemia: Harmful anemia is caused by the destruction of red blood cells by the malaria parasite. Anemia is a condition in which red blood cells cannot transport enough oxygen to the muscles and other organs of the body and as a result, whenever the patient feels sleepy, physical weakness is manifested and the body becomes pale.


Cerebral malaria: Cerebral malaria is most commonly found in the northeastern states of India. This usually results in brain damage and swelling of the brain. In some cases, the brain is permanently damaged. This can lead to seizures or paralysis of the patient's body.


Other complications
Severe malaria can lead to the following other complications:
Shortness of breath, water retention in the lungs, liver failure, and jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)
Shock (sudden loss of blood flow)
Continuous bleeding
Abnormally low blood sugar levels
Kidney failure
Spleen swelling and perforation
Dehydration


Resistance

A) Insect reproduction control (in larval and pupa stage)

All breeding grounds should be filled and covered.

Always keep the stored water with the lid on. Always keep an eye on the car tires, pots, coolers, tanks so that water does not accumulate in such places. Clean potential areas once a week with chlorine or tempos.

Exclude the source of reproduction.

Use larvae-eating fish like gambusia or guppies in home decoration tanks, fountains, and other places.

Use larvae destroying chemicals like Abbott in drinking water.

 

B) Home Remedies:

Use a good mosquito net while sleeping.

Use mosquito repellents, liquids, coils, and mats.

Use 'Indoor Residual Spray' (ERS) with Pesticide.

Use aerosol space spray during the day.

Use insecticides.

Install wire mesh on windows, ventilators, and open spaces.

Use insect repellent.

Cover most of the body with a cloth.

Use the correct insect repellent that contains DEET i.e. diethyltoluamide.

Keep doors and windows well closed in the evening and at night when mosquito bites are most feared.


C) For the protection of the public:

Spread of malathion spray during outbreaks.

The area around the handled faucet should be well cemented and well-drained.

The identification of Anopheles breeding grounds requires greater public sensitivity and involvement.

 

D) Travel safety:

If you are planning a trip, find out if there is a risk of malaria in that particular area and seek medical advice before traveling.

If you travel to malaria-infected areas, you must take anti-malarial drugs with you.

 

E) Prevention of malaria during pregnancy:

Use Insect repaired mosquito repellent / Chronic Pesticide Mosquito (LLIN).

Personally follow all the preventive measures mentioned above.

 

Treatment

Anti-malarial drugs to treat malaria include:

Quinine and related agents

Chloroquine

Amodiaquine

Pyri methamine

Proguanil

Sulfonamides

Mefloquine

Autovacon

Primaquine

Artemisinin and derivatives

Halofantrine

Doxycycline

Clindamycin

Malaria is completely cured after 'rapid diagnosis'.

 

Thanks,

Take care, stay healthy.

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